Interferometry is the process of combining two coherent beams of light, in order to measure properties of the beams.
A Michelson interferometer is probably the most commonly known example and consists of a coherent beam of light which is split into two paths and then recombined. The path difference between the two beams causes interference fringes which can be used to identify the differing history of the two beams.
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Related Terms: Coherent Light, Interferometry, Phase